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torsdag 15 september 2016

Polyfosfaattia akkumuloivat organismit(PAO) ja glykogeenia (GAO)

(1)  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135408000092

Could polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) be glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs)?

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is known to be a key compound in the metabolism of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs). In this study, a sludge highly enriched (80%) in Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (hereafter referred to as Accumulibacter), a widely known PAO, was used to study the ability of these microorganisms to utilize acetate anaerobically under poly-P-limiting conditions. The biomass was subject to several anaerobic and aerobic cycles, during which the poly-P pool of PAOs was gradually emptied by supplying feed deficient in phosphate and washing the biomass at the end of each anaerobic period using media containing no phosphorus. After three cycles, phosphorus was hardly released but PAOs were still able to take up acetate and stored it as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), as demonstrated by post-FISH chemical staining. Glycogen degradation increased substantially, suggesting PAOs were using glycogen as the main energy source. This is a key feature of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are known to compete with PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. The ratios between acetate uptake, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) production, and glycogen consumption agree well with the anaerobic models previously proposed for GAOs.

(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26233656 

Water Res. 2015 Nov 1;84:171-80. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.07.042. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.


Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Glycogen-accumulating metabolism (GAM); Granular sludge; Metabolic pathway; Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs); Polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism (PAM)

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